A study of a welfare state
Features of welfare state
The terminology used varies, but the core issue remains the same; what are the most important factors behind poor health and health inequalities, the upstream or downstream, distal or proximal, structural or individual ones? The regulatory and distributive view of policies serves to ensure that everyone living in society has social freedoms and equal opportunities [ 10 ]. As a result of the change in economic relations with the industrial revolution, social changes became inevitable. In our opinion, reducing social expenditures should be the last resort in the reform initiatives of states to achieve growth in the future periods of transformation of the welfare state. Yet again, in many countries, public expenditures have not decreased, instead, they have increased. For example, Eikemo et al. Figure 2 The three approaches used in comparative welfare research. The narrowing of social welfare state practices in the process of globalization caused social rights to be restricted. From this perspective, the problems in economy and those in social policy need to be handled together. Centers of the treatment of men and beasts founded inside and outside of empire. An Additional file shows the descriptive characteristics of the studies [see Additional file 1 ]. Although globalization had an impact on the welfare state as an external factor, it is also necessary to evaluate the internal factors related to the socioeconomic and demographic structures of the states in the emergence of the crisis. Other countries such as Costa Rica developed a more universal welfare system s—s with social security programs based on the Beveridge model. In the restructuring and surviving process, the financial pressure was tried to be eased through the privatization of the pension system, raising the retirement age, increasing the premiums, and reducing the financial pressure.
Equality: Achieving equality underlies social policies. All of the definitions regarding welfare state include the mentality to protect those who have poor economic and social conditions. His paternalistic programs aimed to forestall social unrest and to undercut the appeal of the new Social Democratic Partyand to secure the support of the working classes for the German Empireas well as to reduce emigration to the United States, where wages were higher but welfare did not exist.
Changed attitudes in reaction to the worldwide Great Depressionwhich brought unemployment and misery to millions, were instrumental in the move to the welfare state in many countries. The city of Rome grew rapidly during the Roman Republic and Empirereaching a population approaching one million in the second century AD.
Marshall identified modern welfare states as a distinctive combination of democracywelfareand capitalismarguing that citizenship must encompass access to social, as well as to political and civil rights.
Especially the differences and inequalities, with regard to opportunities, of the individuals living in different regions cause this balance and harmony to deteriorate. One possible answer to this important question may be that there are substantial theoretical and methodological differences between studies that at least in part lead to different findings.
With the industrial revolution, increased production gave rise to the need for more labor.
based on 96 review