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The easterly jet does not come into existence if the snow over the Tibet Plateau does not melt. A study of the last one hundred years of the Indian monsoons shows that out of 43 deficient monsoon years, 19 were associated with an El Nino.

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Figure 5. By the end of May the southern jet begins to break and later it is diverted to the north of Tibet Plateau.

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Koteswaramput forward his ideas about the monsoon winds based on his studies of upper air circulation. Near about the tenth century, Al Masudi, an Arab explorer from Baghdad, gave an account of the reversal of ocean currents and the monsoon winds over the north Indian Ocean.

It picks up moisture from the Indian Ocean and causes copious rainfall in India and adjoining countries.

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Air Mass Theory: The southeast trade winds in the southern hemisphere and the northeast trade winds in the northern hemisphere meet each other near the equator. Koteswaram, supported by Flohn, feels that because the Tibet Plateau is a source of heat for the atmosphere, it generates an area of rising air.

It was organised jointly by the International Council of Scientific Unions.

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A second Chera Kingdom c. The main difficulty with the Southern Oscillation is that its periodicity is not fixed and its period varies from two to five years. Accordingly, Hailey conceived summer and winter monsoons depending upon the season. However, Portuguese attacks on Arab properties in his jurisdiction provoked the Zamorin and led to conflicts between them. Two more experiments were conducted, jointly, by India and the former USSR in and , with limited participation from other countries. According to this interpretation the main westerly current of the monsoon is simply the expanded equatorial westerlies which lie embedded in the great mass of tropical easterlies or the trade winds. When the summer temperature of air over Tibet remains high for a sufficiently long time, it helps in strengthening the easterly jet and results in heavy rainfall in India. Flohn of the German Weather Bureau, while rejecting the classical theory of origin of monsoons suggested that the tropical monsoon of tropical Asia is simply a modification of the planetary winds of the tropics.
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Monsoon: Classical and Modern Theories of Monsoon